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All Posts in Category: Carcinoma

Prostate Cancer in India

by Dr. Anuradha Shah

Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death among men worldwide.

The prevalence of prostate cancer in India is now similar to the Western countries due to changing life styles, increased awareness, and easy access to medical facility, hence more cases of prostate cancer are being picked up

Prostate cancer is usually a very slow growing cancer and most patients do not have significant symptoms until the cancer reaches an advanced stage. Prostate cancer that is detected early — when it’s still confined to the prostate gland has a better chance of successful treatment.

Most men with prostate cancer die of other unrelated causes, and many never know that they have the disease. But once prostate cancer begins to grow quickly or spreads outside the prostate, it is dangerous.

Risk Factors

  • Age: Risk of prostate cancer increases with age. Prostate cancer is very rare in men below 40 and the risk increases rapidly after the age of 50.
  • Family history: Prostate cancer seems to run in families which suggests a genetic or inherited factor involved in its causation.

Screening and Early Detection

  • Prostate cancer can often be found early by testing the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a man’s blood sample.
  • Another way to find prostate cancer early is the digital rectal exam (DRE).
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Cervical Cancer in India

by Dr. Anuradha Shah

India has a population of 436.76 million women aged 15 years and older who are at risk of developing cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer in India ranks as the 2nd most frequent cancer among women.

Current estimates indicate that every year 122844 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 67477 die from the disease.

Factors contributing to cervical cancer

  • Cervical cancer is caused by infection by a virus, called the Human Papilloma Virus or HPV. Certain strains of this virus are cancer causing, especially 16, 18.
  • Sexual activity at an early age and multiple sexual partners increase the chances of HPV transmission and cervical cancer.
  • Incidence is also higher among women of lower socio-economic classes who have more children, chew tobacco or smoke, on long-term hormonal contraceptive use, poor genital hygiene and malnutrition.

Cervical cancer screening practices:

The Pap Smear test is recommended annually for sexually active women over 30 years for early detection of cervical cancer.

Protective factors for cervical cancer:

Male circumcision and the use of condoms have shown a significant protective effect against HPV transmission.

Vaccination against types 16 and 18 HPV infections may be given.

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PET/CT shows the lung mass on the right

Lung Cancer in India

Dr. Anuradha Shah

PET/CT shows the lung mass on the right

PET/CT shows the lung mass on the right

The incidence of Lung cancer all over the world continues to rise despite the advances in diagnostics and treatment. It also causes the maximum number of cancer related deaths.

In India, the number of new cases increased from around 65,000 in 2009 to 90,000 in 2013, registering a 15-20% increase annually.

The overall 5-year survival rate of lung cancer is poor (only 5%). The age of presentation in Indians is also younger (mid 50’s) while in the rest of world it presents in people in their mid 60’s.

The death rate of the disease is so high that prevention is the only way to avoid it.

Early detection helps in better long term survival.

What are the risk factors?

  • Smoking, even passive or second hand smoking is an important risk factor.
  • Lung cancer can also be caused due to environmental and genetic factors.

Who should get tested?

  • A long standing cough that is not relieved despite treatment for more than four weeks should be reason enough for a person to undergo further testing..
  • All smokers who smoke more than 1 packet a day for 20 years.

What can you do?


If you are a current smoker between 50-79 years and who has smoked 20 cigarettes/day for 20 years or who is still smoking or stopped less than 15 years back then a “Low dose computed tomography (CT)” is a useful screening tool to diagnose early lung cancer.

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Breast Cancer in India

Dr Anuradha Shah

Breast cancer has replaced cervical cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in India. Breast cancer accounts for 25% to 31% of all cancers in women.

The average age of developing breast cancer has also undergone a significant shift from 50 -70 years to 30 -50 years. In 2013 alone 47,587 women died due to breast cancer.

Early detection is crucial as treatment of late stage cancer is often difficult.

Risk Factors:
Women whose mother or sister have breast cancer carry a higher risk of developing this disease.

Women who started having periods earlier or enter menopause later than usual are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer. This is because their bodies have been exposed to oestrogen for longer duration.

Tips for Breast Cancer Prevention
Breast self examination. It is important to teach self examination to know how the breast looks and feels so that any change can be brought to the doctor’s notice.

Screening Mammography: It is advisable for women who are around 40 to get their mammography done. Annual screening mammography is the standard screening test for detecting early breast cancer and helps reduce deaths from breast cancer.

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

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Oral Cancer in India

By Dr Anuradha Shah

Oral Cancer-Courtesy WikipediaThis is the most common cancer among men and the 3rd most common cancer among women.It occurs in the gums, cheek and tongue.130,000 people die annually in India due to oral cancer, which is approximately 14 deaths per hour.Tobacco use in the form of gutka, quid, snuff or misri, bidi and cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor in the cause of oral cancer.Unfortunately 70-80% patients are diagnosed with advanced cancer, making it difficult to treat. Almost half of them die within 12 months of diagnosis.

Can oral cancer be prevented or found early?
Looking at your mouth every day may help find early signs.These warning signs are painless or painful white (leukoplakia) or red (erythroplakia) patches in the mouth.
Please see your doctor immediately and stop using tobacco.It is an important step in the prevention of oral cancers.

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Liver and lung lesions and a quick breast pick-up

This lady came with abdominal pain. USG showed liver lesions. CT chest and abdomen showed liver and lung lesions likely metastases. On looking closely we could see a small spiculated breast nodule that turned out to be malignant. #breastcancer #metastases #ctscan #lung #liver

from Instagram:
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